and mind had no effect in the structure; just as in a building the use of stones, etc., in its erection, does not detract from the skill and ability of the architect, without whom they would be of no possible use. And in like manner, as the edifice of Islam has its own established character, and differs from all other religions, it is clear that it is the work of one possessed of the highest gifts and power; and, from the beauty of the composition of the Qur'an we see that he was singularly wise and eloquent. Moreover, from his life as given in Tradition, and the history of his time, the personality of the Prophet is manifest in the Qur'an. Thus before his flight to Medina, being a mere ordinary citizen of Mecca, he made no mention in the passages given forth there, of force or war for the extension of the faith.

But, FIRST, after the Hegira, when he had gained the powerful body of the Ansārs for his followers, he gave them leave to defend themselves and beat off their opponents. Thus in Surah xxii. 40:— Permission is given to them to fight, because they are persecuted those who have been turned out of their houses without just cause other than that they say, Our Lord is God; and it is allowed by the Commentaries, that this was the first revelation giving permission to fight.

SECOND, some time after, when Muhammad had gained victories over his enemies, this simple permission was changed into command, as we find in Surah ii. 212, 214:— War is enjoined you, but it is hateful unto you... They will ask thee concerning the Sacred Month, whether they may war therein. Say, — To war therein is grievous


but to obstruct the way of God, and infidelity towards him and the holy Maslid, and to drive out his people from thence, is more grievous in the sight of God; and temptation (to idolatry) is more grievous than to kill. The instruction in this passage being that the Muslims should war against the Coreish even in the Sacred months, because they prevented them from visiting the Kaaba.

THIRD, when in the sixth year of the Hegira, the Prophet had conquered the Beni Coreitza and other tribes, he issued still sterner commands against his adversaries, as we find in Surah v. 37:— The recompense of those who fight against God and his Apostle, and study to act corruptly on the earth, is that they shall be slain or crucified, or have their hands and their feet cut off on the opposite sides (of the body), or be banished from the land. Such shall be their disgrace in this world, and in the next they shall suffer a grievous punishment. The Commentators hold that this terrible command relates to idolaters only, and not to Jews and Christians.

FOURTH, But towards these also, the attitude of the Prophet towards the end of his life entirely changed; and so we read in the last revealed Surah (ix. 5, 29) that after the four Sacred months had passed, they should again commence war, as follows:—

And when the Sacred months are ended, kill the idolaters wheresoever ye find them, take them prisoners and besiege them, and lay wait for them in every convenient place. But if they repent, and offer up the appointed Prayers, and pay the legal Alms, then dismiss them freely, for God is gracious and merciful....Fight against