The Quran on Biblical Authority Revisited

Sam Shamoun


This article is the final supplement to my first two papers on this subject ([1], [2]).

It is my intention in this paper to examine certain claims made by some Muslims regarding the Quranic position of previous Scriptures. There are Muslims who actually assert that the Taurat, Gospel and Quran are all part of one Book and that these revelations are now to be found in the Quran alone. This view goes so far as to deny that the Holy Bible contains even a portion of the original revelation that was given to God's messengers before Muhammad. It is further asserted that the Quran never claims that the Taurat was given to Moses. Another Muslim argument that I will be dealing with is the claim that the Quran only acknowledges the Psalms given to David. The Quran does not recognize any other Psalm. With that said, we begin with our examination of the said claims.


The Quran doesn't just refer to the Book of God, but also refers to the Books of God and makes it mandatory for Muslims to believe in all of them:

"The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, HIS BOOKS (kutubihi), and His messengers. ‘We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His messengers.’ And they say: ‘We hear, and we obey: (we seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys.’" S. 2:285

"O ye who believe! Believe in Allah and His Messenger, and the scripture which He hath sent to His Messenger and the scripture which He sent to those before (him). Any who denieth Allah, His angels, HIS BOOKS (Kutubihi), His Messenger, and the Day of Judgment, hath gone far, far astray." S. 4:136

"But We had not given them Books (Kutub) which they could study, nor sent messengers to them before thee as Warners." S. 34:44

"Hast thou not turned thy vision to those who were given a portion of the Book? they believe in sorcery and Tagut (Evil), and say to the Unbelievers that they are better guided in the (right) way than the believers!" S. 4:51

That a portion of the Book was given to some implies that there were other portions given to others. This implies that the term Book carries a wide variety of meanings depending on the context. Here, Book refers to God's revelations as a whole, all the books of God as a single unit. This shows that at times the Arabic word Kitab carries the same meaning as Bible, i.e. a reference to all the inspired books together in a single collection or as a single unit since the author of all these books is essentially One, namely God. The Quran also uses the word Book to refer to the written Record that will be read on the Day of Judgment:

"And thou wilt see every nation bowing the knee: every nation will be called to its Book (Kitabihaa): ‘This Day shall ye be recompensed for all that ye did! This Our Book (Kitaabunaa) speaks about you with truth: For We were wont to put on record all that ye did.’" S. 45:28-29

One final reference to Allah's Books includes:

"And Mary, the daughter of Imran, who guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her of Our Spirit and she accepted the truth of the words of her Lord and HIS BOOKS (Kutubihi), and she was of, the obedient ones." S. 66:12

These verses should sufficiently demonstrate that the Quran acknowledges that God has revealed more than one Book.


The Quran affirms that the Taurat and the Gospel were different books and circulated separately during the time of Jesus and Muhammad:

"It is He (God) who sent down to thee the Book in truth, attesting to what IS BETWEEN ITS (HIS) HANDS, and He sent down the Torah AND the Gospel BEFORE THIS as a guide to mankind." S. 3:3

This verse states that the Quran confirms the Taurat and Gospel which were revealed before Muhammad and that these books were in Muhammad's possession, or at least in the possession of the Jews and Christians at the time of Muhammad. This affirms that the claim that the Taurat and the Gospel are now found only in the Quran is a farce.

"And He will teach him (Jesus) THE BOOK AND the wisdom AND the Taurat AND the Gospel. And (make him) a messenger to the children of Israel: That I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allah's permission and I heal the blind and the leprous, and bring the dead to life with Allah's permission and I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses; most surely there is a sign in this for you, if you are believers. And a verifier of that which IS BETWEEN MY HANDS of the Taurat and that I may allow you part of that which has been forbidden to you, and I have come to you with a sign from your Lord therefore be careful of (your duty to) Allah and obey me." S. 3:48-50

"But why do they (the Jews) come to thee for decision, WHEN THEY HAVE THE TAURAT IN WHICH IS THE COMMAND OF GOD. Surely We revealed the Taurat in which IS guidance and light; with it the prophets who submitted themselves (to Allah) judged (matters) for those who were Jews, and the masters of Divine knowledge and the doctors, because they were required to guard (part) of the Book of Allah, and they were witnesses thereof; therefore fear not the people and fear Me, and do not take a small price for My communications; and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unbelievers. We ordained therein for them (the Jews): ‘Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal.’ But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it IS an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to JUDGE by what God has revealed, they are wrong-doers. And in their footsteps (of Moses and the Jews) We sent Jesus the son of Mary, verifying to the Taurat which was BETWEEN HIS HANDS; and We gave him the Gospel - therein is guidance and light and verifying the Taurat which was BETWEEN HIS HANDS: a guidance and an admonition to the righteous. To you (Muhammad) We revealed the book in truth, VERIFYING THAT WHICH IS BETWEEN HIS (ITS) HANDS FROM THE SCRIPTURE, and guarding it; therefore judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires (to turn away) from the truth that has come to you; for every one of you did We appoint a law and a way, and if Allah had pleased He would have made you (all) a single people, but that He might try you in what He gave you, therefore strive with one another to hasten to virtuous deeds; to Allah is your return, of all (of you), so He will let you know that in which you differed;" S. 5:43-48

"When Allah will say: O Jesus son of Mary! Remember My favor on you and on your mother, when I strengthened you with the holy Spirit, you spoke to the people in the cradle and when of old age, and when I taught you the Book AND the wisdom AND the Taurat AND the Gospel; and when you determined out of clay a thing like the form of a bird by My permission, then you breathed into it and it became a bird by My permission, and you healed the blind and the leprous by My permission; and when you brought forth the dead by My permission; and when I withheld the children of Israel from you when you came to them with clear arguments, but those who disbelieved among them said: This is nothing but clear enchantment." S. 5:110

"And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: ‘Oh Children of Israel! I am the apostle of God to you, confirming that which IS BETWEEN MY HANDS from the Taurat and giving the good news of an Messenger who will come after me, his name being Ahmad, but when he came to them with clear arguments they said: This is clear magic.’" S. 61:6

These verses show that the Taurat in the hands of the Jews, the Gospel of Jesus and the Quran given to Muhammad were separate books which were circulating separately. Even though Christians included the Taurat as part of their scriptures, they still considered it as a revelation distinct from the Gospel.

"And I will write down (my mercy) for those who are righteous and give alms and who believe in our signs; who follow the apostle, the unlettered prophet, whom they find written in the Torah AND the Gospel that IS WITH THEM." S. 7:156-157

"God has bought from the believers their selves and their wealth, and for them is the garden (of Paradise) if they fight in the ways of God: and whether they kill or are killed, the promise of God IS true in the Torah AND the Gospel AND the Qur'an, and who is more faithful to his promise than God?" S. 9:111

The Taurat and the Gospel are said to be with the Jews and Christians during Muhammad's time, and that these books along with the Quran were both different and separate from one another.

"This Qur'an is not such as can be produced by other than God; but it is a verification of that WHICH IS BETWEEN HIS (ITS) HANDS, and the explanation OF THE BOOK, wherein there is no doubt, from the Lord of the worlds." S. 10:37

"In their histories there is certainly a lesson for men of understanding. It (the Qur'an) is not a fabricated story, but a verification of that WHICH IS BETWEEN HIS (ITS) HANDS, a detailed explanation, a guide and a mercy to the people who believe." S. 12:111

"And the unbelievers say, ‘We will not believe in this Qur'an, nor in that which IS BETWEEN HIS (ITS) HANDS; and could you see when the unjust shall be made to stand before their Lord, bandying words one with another! Those who were reckoned weak shall say to those who were proud: Had it not been for you we would certainly have been believers.’" S. 34:31

"That which we have revealed to you of the Book is the truth, attesting to (the truth of) that WHICH IS BETWEEN HIS (ITS) HANDS; most surely with respect to His servants Allah is Aware, Seeing." S. 35:31

"And BEFORE THIS was the Book of Moses as a guide and a mercy: and THIS BOOK is a verification (of it) in the Arabic tongue to warn those who transgress and as glad tidings to the righteous." S. 46:12

"Behold, We turned towards you a company of Jinns listening to the Qur'an ... When the (reading) was finished they returned to their people as warners. They said, ‘O our people! we have heard a Book REVEALED AFTER MOSES attesting to (the truth of) that WHICH IS BETWEEN HIS (ITS) HANDS - guiding to the truth and to a straight path.’" S. 46:29-30

Again, these verses attest that the Quran came to confirm the scriptures such as the Taurat and the Gospel which were available at the time of Muhammad. This again confirms that these scriptures were not contained within the Quran, but were separate from it and accessible to Muhammad's contemporaries.

The final line of evidence, which demonstrates the availability of the previous scriptures at Muhammad's time, includes the following passages:

And they say: If only he would bring us a miracle from his Lord! Hath there not come unto them the proof of what IS IN the former scriptures (al-Suhufi al-oola)? S. 20:133

The Quran says that the FORMER scriptures or pages were available as evidence for Muhammad's contemporaries. These pages which existed at Muhammad's time would have included the revelation given to Moses and Abraham:

"Nay, is he not acquainted with what IS IN the Books of Moses" S. 53:36

"Lo! This IS IN the former scrolls (Al-Suhufi al-oola). The Books of Abraham and Moses (Suhufi ibraheema wa moosa)." S. 87:18-19


"And indeed it is a revelation of the Lord of the worlds – brought down by the trustworthy spirit – upon your heart, so that you be one of the warners – [revealed] in a clear Arabic dialect – and indeed it IS IN the scriptures (Arabic- Zubur) OF OLD. Is it no evidence for them that the scholars of the Israelites know him [to be a true prophet]?" S. 26:192-197

This passage makes it quite clear that the Quran is in the previous scriptures, not the other way around. Muslim commentator Ibn Kathir writes:

The Qur'an was mentioned in the Previous Scriptures

Allah says: this Qur'an was mentioned and referred to in the previous Scriptures that were left behind by their Prophets who foretold it in ancient times and more recently. Allah took a covenant from them that they would follow it, and the last of them stood and addressed his people with the good news of Ahmad ...

Zubur here refers to Books; Zubur is the plural of Az-Zabur, which is also the name used to refer to the Book given to Dawud ...

<Is it not a sign to them that the learned scholars of the Children of Israel knew it?> meaning, is it not a sufficient witness to the truth for them that the scholars of the Children of Israel found this Qur'an mentioned in the Scriptures which THEY STUDY? The meaning is: the fair-minded among them admitted that the attributes of Muhammad and his mission and his Ummah were mentioned in their Books, as was stated by those among them who believed, such as 'Abdullah bin Salam, Salman Al-Farisi and others who met the Prophet. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Abridged, Volume 7, Surat An-Nur to Surat Al-Ahzab, Verse 50 [August 2000, first edition], pp. 276-277; bold italics and capital emphasis ours)

According to Ibn Kathir, the scriptures of old containing the description of Muhammad and the Quran were available during the time of Muhammad. There can be little doubt that the Quran denies the claim that all the previous revelations exist only within its own pages.


Certain Muslims claim that the Quran never says that the Taurat was given to Moses. Rather, the Taurat refers to a body of legislation that was given to the Israelites. This Taurat is not identical to the first five books of the Old Testament called the Pentateuch.

The only problem with this assertion is that it fails to take seriously the Quranic claim that the Taurat, as well as the Book given to Moses, was entrusted to the Children of Israel:

"All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Israel (Jacob) made unlawful for himself, before the Torah was revealed. Say: ‘Bring ye the Torah and study it, if ye be men of truth.’" S. 3:93

"But why do they (the Jews) come to thee for decision, WHEN THEY HAVE THE TAURAT IN WHICH IS THE COMMAND OF GOD. Surely We revealed the Taurat in which IS guidance and light; WITH IT THE PROPHETS WHO SUBMITTED THEMSELVES (to Allah) JUDGED (matters) FOR THOSE WHO WERE JEWS, and the masters of Divine knowledge and the doctors, BECAUSE THEY WERE ENTRUSTED WITH THE PROTECTION OF THE BOOK OF ALLAH, and they were witnesses thereof; therefore fear not the people and fear Me, and do not take a small price for My communications; and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unbelievers. We ordained therein for them (the Jews): ‘Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal.’ But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it IS an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to JUDGE by what God has revealed, they are wrong-doers." S. 5:43-45

"We gave Moses the Book, and made it a Guide to the Children of Israel, (commanding): ‘Take not other than Me as Disposer of (your) affairs.’ O ye that are sprung from those whom We carried (in the Ark) with Noah! Verily he was a devotee most grateful. And We decreed for the Children of Israel in the Book, that twice would they do mischief on the earth and be elated with mighty arrogance (and twice would they be punished)!" S. 17:2-4

"We did aforetime give Moses the Guidance, and We gave the Book in inheritance to the Children of Israel,- A Guide and a Reminder to men of understanding." S. 40:53-54

"We did aforetime grant to the Children of Israel the Book the Power of Command, and Prophethood; We gave them, for Sustenance, things good and pure; and We favored them above the nations. And We granted them Clear Signs in affairs (of Religion): it was only after knowledge had been granted to them that they fell into schisms, through insolent envy among themselves. Verily thy Lord will judge between them on the Day of Judgment as to those matters in which they set up differences." S. 45:16-17

The New Testament agrees that the revelation given before Christ was entrusted to the Jews:

"What advantage, then, is there in being a Jew, or what value is there in circumcision? Much in every way! First of all, they have been entrusted with THE VERY WORDS OF GOD." Romans 3:1-2

"For I could wish that I myself were cursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, those of my own race, the people of Israel. Theirs is the adoption as sons; theirs the divine glory, THE COVENANTS, THE RECEIVING OF THE LAW, the temple worship and the promises. Theirs are the patriarchs, and from them is traced the human ancestry of Christ, who is God over all, forever praised! Amen. Romans 9:4-5

This implies that we must turn to the Jews to see what was the Taurat which they had in their possession. In fact, the Quran encourages people to ask the Children of Israel about their history, especially the circumstances surrounding the Exodus:

"And certainly We gave Moses nine clear signs; SO ASK THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL. When he came to them, Pharaoh said to him: Most surely I deem you, O Moses, to be a man deprived of reason." S. 17:101


"If thou wert in doubt as to what We have revealed unto thee, then ask those who have been reading the Book from before thee: the Truth hath indeed come to thee from thy Lord: so be in no wise of those in doubt." S. 10:94

When we do ask the People of the Book, i.e. the Jews and Christians, we discover that a careful examination of the scriptures that God entrusted to the Children of Israel shows that the Taurat in their possession was none other than the revelation given to Moses.

In fact, one Muslim writer agrees that the term Taurat, as well as Gospel/Injil, must be defined within its cultural and historical context:

The Qur'an, by the names ‘Torah’ and ‘Injeel’ refers to what was called ‘Torah’ and ‘Injeel’ in the environment in which the Qur'an was revealed. It is obvious that had the Qur'an implied something else by these words, it was then necessary to clarify that the words were being used to imply something different from what they were commonly used in the environment. It should be kept in mind that the implication of words in a good piece of literature cannot be against the common usage of such words. If such is the case, it can only be considered a flaw of that piece of literature. For example, in the contemporary English language, the phrase "the prophet" (in singular form) is used only for Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). If any contemporary English writer uses the phrase to imply any other person, it would only be considered a serious mistake and flaw in his writing, unless he/she explicitly or implicitly clarifies in his writing that the phrase has been used in a meaning different from its generally understood connotation. (Source; bold emphasis ours)

Taking the above author's claims in perspective it becomes virtually impossible to deny that the term Taurat refers to the revelation given to Moses.

Before proceeding to the scriptural evidence we would first like to point out that the words Torah (singular) and Torot/Taurat (plural) simply means Law or instruction as Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Lexicon indicates:

08451 towrah {to-raw'} or torah {to-raw'}

AV - law 219; 219

1) law, direction, instruction
1a) instruction, direction (human or divine)
1a1) body of prophetic teaching
1a2) instruction in Messianic age
1a3) body of priestly direction or instruction
1a4) body of legal directives
1b) law
1b1) law of the burnt offering
1b2) of special law, codes of law
1c) custom, manner
1d) the Deuteronomic or Mosaic Law (Source)

The Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word Torah is Nomos. Thayer's Lexicon defines the word as:

3551 nomos {nom'-os}

AV - law 197; 197

1) anything established, anything received by usage, a custom, a law, a command
1a) of any law whatsoever
1a1) a law or rule producing a state approved of God
1a1a) by the observance of which is approved of God
1a2) a precept or injunction
1a3) the rule of action prescribed by reason
1b) of the Mosaic law, and referring, acc. to the context. either to the volume of the law or to its contents
1c) the Christian religion: the law demanding faith, the moral instruction given by Christ, esp. the precept concerning love
1d) the name of the more important part (the Pentateuch), is put for the entire collection of the sacred books of the OT.

Both the words Torah/Torot and Nomos are used throughout the Holy Bible to refer to the revelation given to Moses at Sinai:

"Then he said to Moses, ‘Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. You are to worship at a distance, but Moses alone is to approach the LORD; the others must not come near. And the people may not come up with him.’ When Moses went and told the people all the LORD's words and laws, they responded with one voice, ‘Everything the LORD has said we will do.’ Moses then wrote down everything the LORD had said. He got up early the next morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain and set up twelve stone pillars representing the twelve tribes of Israel. Then he sent young Israelite men, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as fellowship offerings to the LORD. Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and the other half he sprinkled on the altar. Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it to the people. They responded, ‘We will do everything the LORD has said; we will obey.’ Moses then took the blood, sprinkled it on the people and said, ‘This is the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words.’ Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and the seventy elders of Israel went up and saw the God of Israel. Under his feet was something like a pavement made of sapphire, clear as the sky itself. But God did not raise his hand against these leaders of the Israelites; they saw God, and they ate and drank. The LORD said to Moses, ‘Come up to me on the mountain and stay here, and I will give you THE TABLETS OF STONE, with THE LAW and commands I have written for their instruction.’" Exodus 24:1-12 (cf. Exodus 19-20)

Amazingly, the Quran alludes to this event:

"O ye Children of Israel! We delivered you from your enemy, and We made a Covenant with you on the right side of Mount (Sinai), and We sent down to you Manna and quails: (Saying): ‘Eat of the good things We have provided for your sustenance, but commit no excess therein, lest My Wrath should descend on you: and those on whom descends My Wrath do perish indeed!’ S. 20:80-81

The Covenant that God gave to Israel through Moses on the Mount included the giving of the Taurat as well.

"If you do not carefully follow all the words OF THIS LAW, which are written IN THIS BOOK, and do not revere this glorious and awesome name - the LORD your God - the LORD will send fearful plagues on you and your descendants, harsh and prolonged disasters, and severe and lingering illnesses. He will bring upon you all the diseases of Egypt that you dreaded, and they will cling to you. The LORD will also bring on you every kind of sickness and disaster not recorded IN THIS BOOK OF THE LAW, until you are destroyed." Deuteronomy 28:58-61

"The LORD will never be willing to forgive him; his wrath and zeal will burn against that man. All the curses WRITTEN IN THIS BOOK will fall upon him, and the LORD will blot out his name from under heaven. The LORD will single him out from all the tribes of Israel for disaster, according to all the curses of the covenant WRITTEN IN THIS BOOK OF THE LAW." Deuteronomy 29:20-21

"After Moses finished writing IN A BOOK THE WORDS OF THIS LAW from beginning to end, he gave this command to the Levites who carried the ark of the covenant of the LORD: ‘Take THIS BOOK OF THE LAW and place it beside the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God. There it will remain as a witness against you.’" Deuteronomy 31:24-26

The Quran also alludes to the ark that Moses left behind:

"And their Prophet said unto them: Lo! the token of his kingdom is that there shall come unto you the ark wherein is peace of reassurance from your Lord, and a remnant of that which the house of Moses and the house of Aaron left behind, the angels bearing it. Lo! herein shall be a token for you if (in truth) ye are believers." S. 2:248 Pickthall

Since the ark contained a copy of the book of Moses, and since this book was none other than the Taurat itself, this pretty much silences the claim that God didn't give the Taurat to Moses.

"Be strong and very courageous. Be careful to obey all THE LAW my servant Moses gave you; do not turn from it to the right or to the left, that you may be successful wherever you go. Do not let THIS BOOK OF THE LAW depart from your mouth; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful." Joshua 1:7-8

"Then Joshua built on Mount Ebal an altar to the LORD, the God of Israel, as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded the Israelites. He built it according to what is WRITTEN IN THE BOOK OF THE LAW OF MOSES - an altar of uncut stones, on which no iron tool had been used. On it they offered to the LORD burnt offerings and sacrificed fellowship offerings. There, in the presence of the Israelites, Joshua copied on stones THE LAW OF MOSES, which he had written. All Israel, aliens and citizens alike, with their elders, officials and judges, were standing on both sides of the ark of the covenant of the LORD, facing those who carried it-the priests, who were Levites. Half of the people stood in front of Mount Gerizim and half of them in front of Mount Ebal, as Moses the servant of the LORD had formerly commanded when he gave instructions to bless the people of Israel. Afterward, Joshua read all the words OF THE LAW - the blessings and the curses - JUST AS IT IS WRITTEN IN THE BOOK OF THE LAW. There was not a word OF ALL THAT MOSES HAD COMMANDED that Joshua did not READ to the whole assembly of Israel, including the women and children, and the aliens who lived among them." Joshua 8:30-35

"Yet he did not put the sons of the assassins to death, in accordance with what is written IN THE BOOK OF THE LAW OF MOSES where the LORD commanded: ‘Fathers shall not be put to death for their children, nor children put to death for their fathers; each is to die for his own sins.’" 2 Kings 14:6

"Yet he did not put their sons to death, but acted in accordance with what is written IN THE LAW, IN THE BOOK OF MOSES, where the LORD commanded: ‘Fathers shall not be put to death for their children, nor children put to death for their fathers; each is to die for his own sins.’" 2 Chronicles 25:2

"While they were bringing out the money that had been taken into the temple of the LORD, Hilkiah the priest found THE BOOK OF THE LAW of the LORD that had been given THROUGH MOSES. Hilkiah said to Shaphan the secretary, ‘I have found the Book of the Law in the temple of the LORD.’ He gave it to Shaphan." 2 Chronicles 34:14-15

"They set aside the burnt offerings to give them to the subdivisions of the families of the people to offer to the LORD, as is written in THE BOOK OF MOSES. They did the same with the cattle." 2 Chronicles 35:12

"And they installed the priests in their divisions and the Levites in their groups for the service of God at Jerusalem, according to what is written in THE BOOK OF MOSES." Ezra 6:18

"all the people assembled as one man in the square before the Water Gate. They told Ezra the scribe to bring out THE BOOK OF THE LAW OF MOSES, which the LORD had commanded for Israel. So on the first day of the seventh month Ezra the priest brought THE LAW before the assembly, which was made up of men and women and all who were able to understand. He read it aloud from daybreak till noon as he faced the square before the Water Gate in the presence of the men, women and others who could understand. And all the people listened attentively to the Book of the Law. Ezra the scribe stood on a high wooden platform built for the occasion. Beside him on his right stood Mattithiah, Shema, Anaiah, Uriah, Hilkiah and Maaseiah; and on his left were Pedaiah, Mishael, Malkijah, Hashum, Hashbaddanah, Zechariah and Meshullam. Ezra opened THE BOOK. All the people could see him because he was standing above them; and as he opened it, the people all stood up. Ezra praised the LORD, the great God; and all the people lifted their hands and responded, ‘Amen! Amen!’ Then they bowed down and worshiped the LORD with their faces to the ground. The Levites - Jeshua, Bani, Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Hanan and Pelaiah - instructed the people in THE LAW while the people were standing there. They read from THE BOOK OF THE LAW OF GOD, making it clear and giving the meaning so that the people could understand what was being read. Then Nehemiah the governor, Ezra the priest and scribe, and the Levites who were instructing the people said to them all, ‘This day is sacred to the LORD your God. Do not mourn or weep.’ For all the people had been weeping as they listened to the words of the Law ... Day after day, from the first day to the last, Ezra read from THE BOOK OF THE LAW OF GOD. They celebrated the feast for seven days, and on the eighth day, in accordance with the regulation, there was an assembly." Nehemiah 8:1-8, 18

"In the first year of Darius son of Xerxes (a Mede by descent), who was made ruler over the Babylonian kingdom - in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood from the Scriptures, according to the word of the LORD given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years. So I turned to the LORD and pleaded with him in prayer and petition, in fasting, and in sackcloth and ashes ... ‘Therefore the curses and sworn judgments WRITTEN IN THE LAW OF MOSES, the servant of God, have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against you. You have fulfilled the words spoken against us and against our rulers by bringing upon us great disaster. Under the whole heaven nothing has ever been done like what has been done to Jerusalem. JUST AS IT IS WRITTEN IN THE LAW OF MOSES, all this disaster has come upon us, yet we have not sought the favor of the LORD our God by turning from our sins and giving attention to your truth.’" Daniel 9:1-3, 11b-13

"Remember THE LAW OF MY SERVANT MOSES, the decrees and laws I gave him at Horeb for all Israel." Malachi 4:4

"He said to them, ‘This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is WRITTEN about me IN THE LAW OF MOSES, the Prophets and the Psalms.’" Luke 24:44

"Philip found Nathanael and told him, ‘We have found the one MOSES WROTE ABOUT IN THE LAW, and about whom the prophets also wrote - Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.’" John 1:45

These verses demonstrate that the Book that God gave to Moses is none other than the Taurat. Interestingly, the fact that the Quran fails to mention that the Taurat was given to Moses actually proves that the Quran is an incomplete and unreliable record, especially in regards to the teachings and lives of the biblical prophets. Much of the Quran would make little to no sense and is obviously dependent upon the Holy Bible to help clarify the stories of God's true prophets.


It is sometimes claimed that the Quran only acknowledges the Psalms given to David, as the following verses show:

"Lo! We inspire thee as We inspired Noah and the prophets after him, as We inspired Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron and Solomon, and as We imparted unto David the Psalms (Zabuuraa);" S. 4:163

"And thy Lord is Best Aware of all who are in the heavens and the earth. And we preferred some of the prophets above others, and unto David We gave the Psalms (Zabuu-raa)." S. 17:55

As such, they claim that Muslims are not required to accept any of the other Psalms found in the Old Testament. This claim fails to take into consideration that the Quran states that God inspired additional Psalms to messengers besides David:

"Then if they reject thee, so were rejected messengers before thee, who came with Clear Signs, The Scriptures (Zuburi), and the Book of Enlightenment." S. 3:184

"Without doubt it is (announced) IN the revealed Books of former peoples (Zubu-ril-'awwaliin)." S. 26:196

"Are your Unbelievers, (O Quraish), better than they? Or have ye an immunity IN the Sacred Books (Zubur)?" S. 54:43

"And if they reject thee, so did their predecessors, to whom came their messengers with Clear Signs, Scriptures (Zuburi), and the Book illuminating." S. 35:25

Finally, the following citation demonstrates that there were Muslims who had no problem in accepting all the OT Psalms:

Then Allah, may He be glorified and honored, revealed to Da'ud (David), the Psalms, that is al-zabur, which are ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY in number and IN THE HANDS OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS. (Abu 'l-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Nadim, The Fihrist - A 10th Century AD Survey of Islamic Culture, edited and translated by Bayard Dodge [Great Books of the Islamic World, Inc., Columbia University Press, 1970], p. 43; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Although this source erroneously attributes all 150 Psalms to David, this nonetheless demonstrates that some Muslims wholeheartedly embraced and accepted all of the OT Psalms as God's revealed Word.

This concludes our discussion. May our risen Lord and Savior Jesus Christ use it to bring precious Muslims to the truth of his only revealed Word, the Holy Bible. Amen. Come Lord Jesus, come. We love you forever, O King of eternal glory.

Articles by Sam Shamoun
More on: What the Qur'an says about the Bible
Answering Islam Home Page