The Doctrine of the Trinity (Brief Study) Submitted by: Frank DeCenso, Jr. (firstname.lastname@example.org) This study is not meant to be exhaustive by any means, but rather, it is meant to provide a concise and conclusive argument for the Trinity. For a more exhaustive study, see _The Trinity_ by Edward Henry Bickersteth, and _The Biblical Doctrine Of The Trinity_ by Robert Bowman (published by The Christian Research Institute). I. Trinity Defined II. Not Easily Understood A. His Own Did Not Know Him 1. JOHN 1:5 "And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it." 2. JOHN 1:10 "He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him." B. 1 CORINTHIANS 2:14 "But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned." III. Scriptural Analogies A. The Body of Christ 1. ROMANS 12:4-5 "For as we have many members in one body, but all the members do not have the same function, so we, being many, are one body in Christ, and individually members of one another." 2. 1 CORINTHIANS 12:12-14 "For as the body is one and has many members, but all the members of that one body, being many, are one body, so also is Christ. For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body- -whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free--and have all been made to drink into one Spirit. For in fact the body is not one member but many. 3. EPHESIANS 2:21-22 "in whom the whole building, being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord, in whom you also are being built together for a dwelling place of God in the Spirit." B. Man's Makeup 1. 1 THESSALONIANS 5:23-24 "Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you completely; and may your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. He who calls you is faithful, who also will do it." --> GENESIS 1:26 "Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." C. Old Testament Analogies 1. NUMBER 14:15 "Now if You kill these people as one man, then the nations which have heard of Your fame will speak, saying" 2. JUDGES 6:16 "And the LORD said to him, "Surely I will be with you, and you shall defeat the Midianites as one man." 3. JUDGES 20:1 "So all the children of Israel came out, from Dan to Beersheba, as well as from the land of Gilead, and the congregation gathered together as one man before the LORD at Mizpah." 4. JUDGES 20:8 "So all the people arose as one man, saying, "None of us will go to his tent, nor will any turn back to his house" 5. JUDGES 20:11 "So all the men of Israel were gathered against the city, united together as one man." 6. 2 SAMUEL 19:14 "So he swayed the hearts of all the men of Judah, just as the heart of one man, so that they sent this word to the king: "Return, you and all your servants!"" 7. EZRA 3:1 "And when the seventh month had come, and the children of Israel were in the cities, the people gathered together as one man to Jerusalem." 8. NEHEMIAH 8:1 "Now all the people gathered together as one man in the open square that was in front of the Water Gate; and they told Ezra the scribe to bring the Book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded Israel." D. There Is Nothing You Can Compare God To 1. ISAIAH 40:18 "To whom then will you liken God? Or what likeness will you compare to Him?" 2. ISAIAH 46:5 ""To whom will you liken Me, and make Me equal And compare Me, that we should be alike?" IV. There Is Only One God A. JOHN 1:1-3 "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made." 1. Jehovah's Witnesses' New World Translation states "a god" A. If that were true, it would negate the following Scriptures : 1. DEUTERONOMY 4:35 ""To you it was shown, that you might know that the LORD Himself is God; there is none other besides Him." 2. DEUTERONOMY 32:39 "'Now see that I, even I, am He, And there is no God besides Me; I kill and I make alive; I wound and I heal; Nor is there any who can deliver from My hand." 3. 2 SAMUEL 7:22 ""Therefore You are great, O Lord GOD. For there is none like You, nor is there any God besides You, according to all that we have heard with our ears." 4. 1 CHRONICLES 17:20 ""O LORD, there is none like You, nor is there any God besides You, according to all that we have heard with our ears." 5. PSALM 86:10 "For You are great, and do wondrous things; You alone are God." 6. ISAIAH 43:10-11 ""You are My witnesses," says the LORD, "And My servant whom I have chosen, That you may know and believe Me, And understand that I am He. Before Me there was no God formed, Nor shall there be after Me. I, even I, am the LORD, And besides Me there is no savior." 7. ISAIAH 44:6 ""Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: 'I am the First and I am the Last; Besides Me there is no God." 8. ISAIAH 44:8 "Do not fear, nor be afraid; Have I not told you from that time, and declared it? You are My witnesses. Is there a God besides Me? Indeed there is no other Rock; I know not one.'" 9. ISAIAH 45:5 "I am the LORD, and there is no other; There is no God besides Me. I will gird you, though you have not known Me," 10. ISAIAH 45:6 "That they may know from the rising of the sun to its setting That there is none besides Me. I am the LORD, and there is no other" 11. ISAIAH 45:14 "Thus says the LORD: "The labor of Egypt and merchandise of Cush And of the Sabeans, men of stature, Shall come over to you, and they shall be yours; They shall walk behind you, They shall come over in chains; And they shall bow down to you. They will make supplication to you, saying, 'Surely God is in you, And there is no other; There is no other God.'" 12. ISAIAH 45:18 "For thus says the LORD, Who created the heavens, Who is God, Who formed the earth and made it, Who has established it, Who did not create it in vain, Who formed it to be inhabited: "I am the LORD, and there is no other." 13. ISAIAH 45:21 "Tell and bring forth your case; Yes, let them take counsel together. Who has declared this from ancient time? Who has told it from that time? Have not I, the LORD? And there is no other God besides Me, A just God and a Savior; There is none besides Me." 14. GALATIANS 3:20 "Now a mediator does not mediate for one only, but God is one." 15. 1 TIMOTHY 2:5 "For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus," 16. 1 CORINTHIANS 8:4-6 "Therefore concerning the eating of things offered to idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is no other God but one. For even if there are so- called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords), yet for us there is one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we for Him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and through whom we live." B. Greek Grammatical Rules do not allow for that translation B. Old Testament Plurals 1. Hebrew word for "God" is 'elohim' (occurs 2700 times) - a plural noun always joined to singular verbs 2. God refers to Himself in the plural A. GENESIS 1:26 "Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." B. GENESIS 3:22 "Then the LORD God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of Us, to know good and evil. And now, lest he put out his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever" C. GENESIS 11:7 ""Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another's speech." D. ISAIAH 6:8 "Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying: "Whom shall I send, And who will go for Us?" Then I said, "Here am I! Send me." 3. Other verses refer to God in the plural A. ISAIAH 48:16 ""Come near to Me, hear this: I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; From the time that it was, I was there. And now the Lord GOD and His Spirit HAVE sent Me." ("have", singular verb) B. ECCLESIASTES 12:1 "Remember now your Creator in the days of your youth, Before the difficult days come, And the years draw near when you say, "I have no pleasure in them" ("creator" is plural) C. PROVERBS 9:10 ""The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom, And the knowledge of the Holy One is understanding." ("Holy One" is plural) D. JOB 35:10 "But no one says, 'Where is God my Maker, Who gives songs in the night" (God", "Maker" are plural) E. ISAIAH 54:5 "For your Maker is your husband, The LORD of hosts is His name; And your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel; He is called the God of the whole earth." ("Husband", "Maker" are plural) C. New Testament Singular 1. MATTHEW 28:19 ""Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" ("name" is singular) D. God Will Not Give His Glory To Another 1. ISAIAH 42:8 "I am the LORD, that is My name; And My glory I will not give to another, Nor My praise to carved images." ; ISAIAH 48:11 "For My own sake, for My own sake, I will do it; For how should My name be profaned? And I will not give My glory to another." --> JOHN 17:5 ""And now, O Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was." V. The Pre-Existence of Jesus Christ A. Jesus Has Always Existed 1. MICAH 5:2 ""But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, Yet out of you shall come forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, From everlasting." 2. ISAIAH 9:6 "For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace." 3. ZECHARIAH 12:10 ""And I will pour on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem the Spirit of grace and supplication; then they will look on Me whom they pierced. Yes, they will mourn for Him as one mourns for his only son, and grieve for Him as one grieves for a firstborn." --> REVELATION 1:7-8 "Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him, even they who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen. "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End," says the Lord, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty." 4. 1 CORINTHIANS 10:9 "nor let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed by serpents" --> NUMBERS 21:6-9 "So the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and many of the people of Israel died. Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, "We have sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD and against you; pray to the LORD that He take away the serpents from us." So Moses prayed for the people. Then the LORD said to Moses, "Make a fiery serpent, and set it on a pole; and it shall be that everyone who is bitten, when he looks at it, shall live." So Moses made a bronze serpent, and put it on a pole; and so it was, if a serpent had bitten anyone, when he looked at the bronze serpent, he lived." 5. 1 CORINTHIANS 10:4 "and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ." --> ISA. 44:8 "Do not fear, nor be afraid; Have I not told you from that time, and declared it? You are My witnesses. Is there a God besides Me? Indeed there is no other Rock; I know not one.'" 6. JOHN 1:15 "John bore witness of Him and cried out, saying, "This was He of whom I said, 'He who comes after me is preferred before me, for He was before me.'" ; JOHN 1:30 ""This is He of whom I said, 'After me comes a Man who is preferred before me, for He was before me.'" 7. JOHN 1:1 "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." ; JOHN 1:14 "And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth." 8. JOHN 3:13 ""No one has ascended to heaven but He who came down from heaven, that is, the Son of Man who is in heaven." 9. JOHN 6:51 ""I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever; and the bread that I shall give is My flesh, which I shall give for the life of the world." 10. JOHN 3:31-32 ""He who comes from above is above all; he who is of the earth is earthly and speaks of the earth. He who comes from heaven is above all. "And what He has seen and heard, that He testifies; and no one receives His testimony." 11. JOHN 17:5 ""And now, O Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was." 12. JOHN 17:24 ""Father, I desire that they also whom You gave Me may be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which You have given Me; for You loved Me before the foundation of the world." 13. ISAIAH 43:10 ""You are My witnesses," says the LORD, "And My servant whom I have chosen, That you may know and believe Me, And understand that I am He. Before Me there was no God formed, Nor shall there be after Me." B. The Father's Testimony 1. HEBREWS 1:1-2 "God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds" ; HEBREWS 1:5-10 "For to which of the angels did He ever say: "You are My Son, Today I have begotten You"? And again: "I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son"? But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says: "Let all the angels of God worship Him." And of the angels He says: "Who makes His angels spirits And His ministers a flame of fire." But to the Son He says: "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your Kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You With the oil of gladness more than Your companions." And: "You, LORD, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands." C. Jesus In The Role of Creator 1. The LORD created everything alone A. ISAIAH 44:24 "Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, And He who formed you from the womb: "I am the LORD, who makes all things, Who stretches out the heavens all alone, Who spreads abroad the earth by Myself" 2. Jesus participated in the creation A. JOHN 1:1-3 "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made." B. COLOSSIANS 1:16 "For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him." C. HEBREWS 1:2 "has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds" ; HEBREWS 1:10-12 "And: "You, LORD, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands. They will perish, but You remain; And they will all grow old like a garment; Like a cloak You will fold them up, And they will be changed. But You are the same, And Your years will not fail." 3. Therefore, the Godhead (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) created everything alone A. GENESIS 1:26 "Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." VI. Jesus' Claims To Be God A. Almighty God: REVELATION 1:8 ""I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End," says the Lord, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty." (this verse is probably referring to Jesus, but Jehovah's Witnesses state it is referring to God the Father); REVELATION 21:5-7 "Then He who sat on the throne said, "Behold, I make all things new." And He said to me, "Write, for these words are true and faithful." And He said to me, "It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. "He who overcomes shall inherit all things, and I will be his God and he shall be My son." --> Jesus Christ: REVELATION 1:11 "saying, "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last," and, "What you see, write in a book and send it to the seven churches which are in Asia: to Ephesus, to Smyrna, to Pergamos, to Thyatira, to Sardis, to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea." ; REVELATION 2:8 ""And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write, 'These things says the First and the Last, who was dead, and came to life" ; REVELATION 22:12- 13 ""And behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to give to every one according to his work. "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last." ; REVELATION 22:16 ""I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things in the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the Bright and Morning Star." 1. There can only be one "first" and one "last" A. ISAIAH 41:4 "Who has performed and done it, Calling the generations from the beginning? 'I, the LORD, am the first; And with the last I am He.'" B. ISAIAH 44:6 ""Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: 'I am the First and I am the Last; Besides Me there is no God." C. ISAIAH 48:12 ""Listen to Me, O Jacob, And Israel, My called: I am He, I am the First, I am also the Last." B. JOHN 8:24 ""Therefore I said to you that you will die in your sins; for if you do not believe that I am, you will die in your sins." ; JOHN 8:58 "Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM." C. JOHN 10:30 ""I and My Father are one." 1. Jesus accused of blasphemy A. JOHN 8:59 "Then they took up stones to throw at Him; but Jesus hid Himself and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by." B. JOHN 10:30-33 ""I and My Father are one." Then the Jews took up stones again to stone Him. Jesus answered them, "Many good works I have shown you from My Father. For which of those works do you stone Me?" The Jews answered Him, saying, "For a good work we do not stone You, but for blasphemy, and because You, being a Man, make Yourself God." C. JOHN 5:17-18 "But Jesus answered them, "My Father has been working until now, and I have been working." Therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill Him, because He not only broke the Sabbath, but also said that God was His Father, making Himself equal with God." D. JOHN 14:6-9 "Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me. "If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; and from now on you know Him and have seen Him." Philip said to Him, "Lord, show us the Father, and it is sufficient for us." Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; so how can you say, 'Show us the Father'?" E. JOHN 3:16 ""For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life." (Greek of "only begotten") F. MATTHEW 18:20 ""For where two or three are gathered together in My name, I am there in the midst of them." (Jesus' claim of omnipresence) VII. Others' Claims That Jesus Is God A. The Word Of God 1. JOHN 1:1 "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." ; JOHN 1:14 "And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth." 2. JOHN 1:18 "No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him." (Most translations say "only begotten Son". But "Son" is THEOS in the Greek, which means "God")) 3. JOHN 12:37-41 "But although He had done so many signs before them, they did not believe in Him, that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spoke: "Lord, who has believed our report? And to whom has the arm of the LORD been revealed?" Therefore they could not believe, because Isaiah said again: "He has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts, Lest they should see with their eyes, Lest they should understand with their hearts and turn, So that I should heal them." These things Isaiah said when he saw His glory and spoke of Him." --> ISA. 6:1-5 4. JOHN 20:28 "And Thomas answered and said to Him, "My Lord and my God!" 5. MATTHEW 1:21-23 ""And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name JESUS, for He will save His people from their sins." So all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying: "Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel," which is translated, "God with us." 6. ACTS 20:28 ""Therefore take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood." 7. ROMANS 9:5 "of whom are the fathers and from whom, according to the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, the eternally blessed God. Amen." 8. ROMANS 10:9-13 "that if you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. For with the heart one believes unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes on Him will not be put to shame." For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him. For "whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved." --> JOEL 2:32 "And it shall come to pass That whoever calls on the name of the LORD Shall be saved. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance, As the LORD has said, Among the remnant whom the LORD calls." 9. COLOSSIANS 1:15-18 "He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist. And He is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in all things He may have the preeminence." 10. COLOSSIANS 2:9 "For in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily" 11. 1 TIMOTHY 1:16-17 "However, for this reason I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might show all longsuffering, as a pattern to those who are going to believe on Him for everlasting life. Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, to God who alone is wise, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen." 12. 1 TIMOTHY 3:15-16 "but if I am delayed, I write so that you may know how you ought to conduct yourself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: He was manifested in the flesh, Justified in the Spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the Gentiles, Believed on in the world, Received up in glory." 13. 1 TIMOTHY 6:14-16 "that you keep this commandment without spot, blameless until our Lord Jesus Christ's appearing, which He will manifest in His own time, He who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings and Lord of lords, who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or can see, to whom be honor and everlasting power. Amen." 14. TITUS 2:13 "looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ" 15. 2 PETER 1:1 "Simon Peter, a bondservant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who have obtained like precious faith with us by the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ" 16. 1 JOHN 5:20 "And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us an understanding, that we may know Him who is true; and we are in Him who is true, in His Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life." B. Early Church Writings 1. Barnabus (?) A. The General Epistle of Barnabus 4:7 "And for this cause the Lord was content to suffer for our souls, although he be the Lord of the whole earth; to whom God said before the beginning of the world, Let us make man after our own image and likeness." B. The General Epistle of Barnabus 5:8,9 "Moses also in like manner speaketh to them; Behold thus saith the Lord God; enter ye into the good land of which the Lord hath sworn to Abraham, and Issac, and Jacob, that he would give you, and possess it; a land flowing with milk and honey. Now what is the spiritual meaning of this is, learn; It is as if it had been said, Put your trust in Jesus, who shall be manifested to you in the flesh...." C. The General Epistle of Barnabus 5:12 "For thus the Scripture saith concerning us, where it intoduceth the Father speaking to the Son; Let us make man after our likeness and similitude". D. The General Epistle of Barnabus 5:17 "Because He was about to be made manifest in the flesh and to dwell in us." 2. Ignatius (30-107 AD) A. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 1:1 "...according to the will of the Father, and Jesus Christ our God". B. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 2:7 "There is one physician, both fleshly and spiritual; made and not made; God incarnate..." C. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:9 "For our God Jesus Christ, was, according to the appointment of God, conceived in the womb by Mary, of the seed of David, but by the Holy Ghost." D. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:13 "...God Himself appearing in the form of a man, for the renewal of eternal life." E. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:11 "There is ...one Jesus Christ; who proceeded from one Father, and exists in one, and is returned to one." F. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 4:6 "Be subject to your bishop, and to one another, as Jesus Christ to the Father, according to the flesh". G. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians 2:4 "continue inseparable from Jesus Christ our God". H. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans 1:1 "to the church which has obtained mercy from the majesty of the Most High Father, and His only begotten Son Jesus Christ; beloved, and illuminated through the will of Him who willeth all things which are according to the love of Jesus Christ our God". I. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans 1:13 "For even our God, Jesus Christ, now that He is in the Father". J. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Philadelphians 2:23 "He is the door of the Father; by which Abraham, and Issac, and Jacob, and all the prophets enter in; as well as the Apostles, and the church." K. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrneans 1:2 "I glorify God, even Jesus Christ". L. The Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp 1:15 "await Him that is above every season, the Eternal, the Invisible, who became visible for our sake...who suffered for our sake." M. The Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp 3:10 "...in our God, Jesus Christ". 3. Polycarp (69-155 AD) A. The Epistle of Polycarp to the Church at Philippi, 12 "Now may the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the eternal High Priest Himself, the God Jesus Christ, build you up in the faith..." 4. Justin Martyr (110-166 AD) A. Dialogue With Trypho, 34 "For Christ is King, and Priest, and God and Lord..." B. Dialogue With Trypho, 137 "who was also fire when He spoke with Moses from the bush....our Christ conversed with Moses under the appearance of fire from a bush." C. Dialogue With Trypho, 48 "...He preexisted as the Son of the Creator of things, being God, and that He was born a man by the Virgin." D. First Apology, 63 "...the Father of all has a Son, who is both the first-born Word of God and is God." 5. Irenaeus (120-202 AD) A. Irenaeus Against Heresies, 1.10.1 "In order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King..." B. Irenaeus Against Heresies, 4:10 "For with Him were always present the Word and Wisdom, the Son and the Spirit, by whom and in whom, freely and spontaneously, He made all things, to whom also He speaks, saying, 'Let us make man after our image and likeness'". C. Irenaeus Against Heresies, 3.19.1-2 "...He is Himself in His own right God and Lord and Eternal King and Only Begotten and Incarnate Word....The Scriptures would not have borne witness to these things concerning Him, if, like everyone else, He were mere man." D. Irenaeus Against Heresies, 5.19.1 "The Virgin Mary...being obedient to His word, received from an angel the glad tidings that she would bear God." 6. Clement of Alexandria (150-215 AD) A. First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians 7:2 "For thus says the Holy Spirit; Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, nor let the strong man glory in his strength, nor let the rich man glory in his riches". (a quote of Jeremiah 9:23, "For thus says LORD, 'Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom...'") B. Second Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians 1:1 "Brethren, we ought so to think of Jesus Christ as of God : as of the judge of the living and the dead". 7. Unknown Author (150 AD) A. Epistle to Diognetus, 7 "Rather he sent the Designer and Maker of the universe Himself....God sent him to men." B. Epistle to Diognetus, 11 "This is he who was from the beginning, who appeared new and yet was found to be old, and is ever born young in the hearts of the saints. This is the eternal one, who today is accounted the Son." 8. Athenagoras (about 177 AD) A. Intercession on Behalf of the Saints, 10 "Who, then, would not be astonished to hear those called atheists who admit God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and who teach their unity in power and their distinction in rank?" 9. Theophilus of Antioch (died 181 AD) A. To Autolycus 2.22 "The divine Scripture itself teaches us that Adam said he had heard the voice. And what else is this voice but the Word of God, which also is His Son". 10. Melito of Sardis (died about 190 AD) A. Guide, 13 "The activities of Christ after His baptism, and especially His miracles, gave indication and assurance to the world of the Deity hidden in the flesh. Being God and likewise perfect man...He concealed the signs of His Deity, although He was the true God existing before the ages." 11. Hippolytus (died 236 AD) A. Refutation of All Heresies 10.34 "For Christ is the God over all". B. Against the Heresy of a Certain Noetus, 17 "God the Word came down from heaven...He came forth into the world and...showed Himself to be God". 12. Tertullian (converted around 193 AD) A. The Soul 41.3 "God alone is without sin. The only man without sin is Christ; for Christ is also God." 13. Origin (185-254) A. Fundamental Doctrines 1. pref. 2-4; 1.2.1; 4.4.1 "Although He was God, He took flesh; and having been made man, He remained what He was, God". 14. Athanasius (297-373) : He countered Arius' view by replying "that the Son was indeed co-eternal with the Father, but not subordinate to Him, except in the context of the incarnation." (New Dictionary of Theology, pg. 693) 15. Council of Nicea (325 AD) A. Nicene Creed The Nicene Creed (from the Council of Nicea, 325 a.d.) I believe in one God and Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, And of all things visible and invisible: And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only- begotten Son of God; Begotten of His Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God; Begotten, not made; Being of one substance with the Father; By whom all things were made: Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man: And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried: And the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures: And ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father: And He shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead; Whose kingdom shall have no end. And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son; Who with the Father and Son together is worshiped and glorified; Who spake by the Prophets: And I believe in the one catholic [universal] and Apostolic Church: I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins; And I look for the Resurrection of the dead: And the life of the world to come. Amen. VIII. Jesus' Submission To The Father In The Incarnation A. JOHN 14:28 ""You have heard Me say to you, 'I am going away and coming back to you.' If you loved Me, you would rejoice because I said, 'I am going to the Father,' for My Father is greater than I." --> LUKE 22:27 ""For who is greater, he who sits at the table, or he who serves? Is it not he who sits at the table? Yet I am among you as the One who serves." B. PHILIPPIANS 2:5-8 "Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus, who, being in the form of God, did not consider it robbery to be equal with God, but made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men. And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross." IX. Jesus And The Holy Spirit Are One In Essence A. JOHN 14:16-18 ""And I will pray the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may abide with you forever--"the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you. "I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you." B. 2 CORINTHIANS 3:17 "Now the Lord is the Spirit; and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty." 1. Jesus is physically in heaven A. ACTS 2:33 ""Therefore being exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He poured out this which you now see and hear." B. 1 PETER 3:22 "who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, angels and authorities and powers having been made subject to Him." C. ROMANS 8:34 "Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us." D. HEBREWS 10:12 "But this Man, after He had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God" E. EPHESIANS 1:20 "which He worked in Christ when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places" F. COLOSSIANS 3:1 "If then you were raised with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ is, sitting at the right hand of God." G. HEBREWS 1:3 "who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high" H. HEBREWS 8:1 "Now this is the main point of the things we are saying: We have such a High Priest, who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens" I. HEBREWS 12:2 "looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God." 2. Jesus dwells in us A. 2 CORINTHIANS 13:5 "Examine yourselves as to whether you are in the faith. Test yourselves. Do you not know yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you?--unless indeed you are disqualified." B. 1 JOHN 5:11-12 "And this is the testimony: that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life." C. EPHESIANS 3:17 "that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; that you, being rooted and grounded in love" D. COLOSSIANS 1:27 "To them God willed to make known what are the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles: which is Christ in you, the hope of glory." E. ROMANS 8:10 "And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness." F. GALATIANS 2:20 ""I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me." 3. Jesus is always with us A. MATTHEW 28:20 ""teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen." 4. Jesus is with believers when they gather A. MATTHEW 18:20 ""For where two or three are gathered together in My name, I am there in the midst of them." X. The Holy Spirit Is God A. JAMES 4:4-5 "Adulterers and adulteresses! Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Whoever therefore wants to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. Or do you think that the Scripture says in vain, "The Spirit who dwells in us yearns jealously"?" B. ACTS 5:3-4 "But Peter said, "Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and keep back part of the price of the land for yourself? "While it remained, was it not your own? And after it was sold, was it not in your own control? Why have you conceived this thing in your heart? You have not lied to men but to God." C. MARK 3:28-29 ""Assuredly, I say to you, all sins will be forgiven the sons of men, and whatever blasphemies they may utter; "but he who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is subject to eternal condemnation" D. JOHN 14:17 ""the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you." --> JOHN 14:23 "Jesus answered and said to him, "If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him." E. HEBREWS 10:15-17 "But the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us; for after He had said before, "This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the LORD: I will put My laws into their hearts, and in their minds I will write them," then He adds, "Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no more." --> JEREMIAH 31:33-34 ""But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My law in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. "No more shall every man teach his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says the LORD. For I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more." XI. God Raised Jesus From The Dead A. God Raised Jesus 1. EPHESIANS 1:19-20 "and what is the exceeding greatness of His power toward us who believe, according to the working of His mighty power which He worked in Christ when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places" 2. ROMANS 10:9 "that if you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved." 3. COLOSSIANS 2:12 "buried with Him in baptism, in which you also were raised with Him through faith in the working of God, who raised Him from the dead." 4. 1 PETER 1:21 "who through Him believe in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God." 5. 1 CORINTHIANS 6:14 "And God both raised up the Lord and will also raise us up by His power." 6. ACTS 2:24 ""whom God raised up, having loosed the pains of death, because it was not possible that He should be held by it." 7. ACTS 3:15 ""and killed the Prince of life, whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses." 8. ACTS 13:34 ""And that He raised Him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, He has spoken thus: 'I will give you the sure mercies of David.'" 9. ACTS 13:37 ""but He whom God raised up saw no corruption." 10. HEBREWS 13:20 "Now may the God of peace who brought up our Lord Jesus from the dead, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant" A. The Father raised Jesus 1. ROMANS 6:4 "Therefore we were buried with Him through baptism into death, that just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life." 2. GALATIANS 1:1 "Paul, an apostle (not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised Him from the dead)" B. Jesus raised Himself 1. JOHN 2:19 "Jesus answered and said to them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up." ; JOHN 2:21 "But He was speaking of the temple of His body." 2. JOHN 10:17-18 ""Therefore My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life that I may take it again. "No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father." XII. We Are The Temple Of The God A. God Dwells In Us 1. 2 CORINTHIANS 6:16 "And what agreement has the temple of God with idols? For you are the temple of the living God. As God has said: "I will dwell in them And walk among them. I will be their God, And they shall be My people." 2. EPHESIANS 2:22 "in whom you also are being built together for a dwelling place of God in the Spirit." 3. 1 JOHN 4:12 "No one has seen God at any time. If we love one another, God abides in us, and His love has been perfected in us." 4. 1 JOHN 4:13 "By this we know that we abide in Him, and He in us, because He has given us of His Spirit." 5. 1 JOHN 4:15 "Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God." 6. 1 JOHN 4:16 "And we have known and believed the love that God has for us. God is love, and he who abides in love abides in God, and God in him." A. The Father dwells in us 1. 2 CORINTHIANS 6:16 "And what agreement has the temple of God with idols? For you are the temple of the living God. As God has said: "I will dwell in them And walk among them. I will be their God, And they shall be My people." 2. 2 JOHN 9 "Whoever transgresses and does not abide in the doctrine of Christ does not have God. He who abides in the doctrine of Christ has both the Father and the Son." B. Jesus dwells in us 1. EPHESIANS 3:17 "that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; that you, being rooted and grounded in love" 2. 2 CORINTHIANS 13:5 "Examine yourselves as to whether you are in the faith. Test yourselves. Do you not know yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you?--unless indeed you are disqualified." 3. 1 JOHN 5:11-12 "And this is the testimony: that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life." 4. COLOSSIANS 1:27 "To them God willed to make known what are the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles: which is Christ in you, the hope of glory." 5. ROMANS 8:10 "And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness." 6. GALATIANS 2:20 ""I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me." D. The Father and Jesus dwells in us 1. JOHN 14:23 "Jesus answered and said to him, "If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him." C. The Holy Spirit dwells in us 1. JOHN 14:17 ""the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you." 2. ROMANS 8:9 "But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His." 3. 1 CORINTHIANS 3:16 "Do you not know that you are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwells in you?" 4. 2 TIMOTHY 1:14 "That good thing which was committed to you, keep by the Holy Spirit who dwells in us." 5. GALATIANS 4:6 "And because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying out, "Abba, Father!"" 6. 1 CORINTHIANS 6:19 "Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?"
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